STRONA G£”WNA » Subject 12 (Labours, 1st year DDS)

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Subject 12 (Labours, 1st year DDS)


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Sarcoptes scabiei - itch mite

Host: human.

Life cycle: eggs, larvae (6 legs), nymph (8 legs), adult (8 legs).

Transmission: transfer of S. scabiei during personal contact or rarely by dirty bedding and clothes.

Site of infection: skin - predominantly between the fingers and on the wrists.

Diagnostic method(s):
• the appearance and distribution of the rash and the presence of burrows;
• isolation of the mites, larvae or ova from a skin scraping.

Geographical distribution: cosmopolitan.

Remarks: other races of scabies may infect other mammals such as domestic cats, dogs, pigs, and horses.

Demodex folliculorum - follicle mite

Host: human.

Life cycle: eggs, larvae (6 legs), nymph (8 legs), adult (8 legs).

Transmission: transfer of D. folliculorum during personal contact or by dirty microscopic oculars or glasses.

Site of infection: hair follicles, epidermis of the nose and adjacent regions of the face.

Diagnostic method(s): microscopic identification of skin scrapings or hair from eyebrows and eyelashes.

Geographical distribution: cosmopolitan.

Remarks: two species of follicle mites parasitize humans; D. folliculorum is found in the hair follicles above the sebaceous glands, and D. brevis occurs in sebaceous glands.

Ixodes sp. - tick

Hosts: mammals (including human), birds and reptiles.

Life cycle: eggs, larvae (6 legs), nymph (8 legs), adult (8 legs).

Vector of bacteria (Borrelia), rickettsiae, protozoa (Babesia).

Site of infection: skin.

Geographical distribution: cosmopolitan.

Prevention against tick bite:
• avoid known or suspected areas in which ticks live (walk only on cleared paths and avoid bushes and tall grass);
• wear proper clothing (light colours of clothing, long pants, with long- sleeves shirts and closed-toed shoes);
• use repellents.

Pediculus sp. - louse

Species: P. capitis (head louse), P. humanus (body louse) and Pthirus pubis (crab louse).

Host: human.

Life cycle: eggs (nits), nymphs, adults (incomplete metamorphosis).

Transmission:
P. capitis and P. humanus - by dirty clothes (hats, scarves), towels and barber instruments (combs, brushes), bedding and personal contact;
Phthirus pubis - by sexual contact and bedding.

Sites of infection:
P. capitis - on the scalp;
P. humanus - on the clothes near the skin;
Phthirus pubis - on the pubic hair (occasionally in eye brows and beard).

Geographical distribution: cosmopolitan.

Diagnostic method(s): finding nymphs, adult or eggs on the hair or clothes.

Pulex irritans - human flea

Host: warm-blooded animals (including human).

Vector of: plague, murine typhus and Dipylidium caninum.

Life cycle: eggs, larvae, pupa, adults (complete metamorphosis).

Sites of infection: skin.

Geographical distribution: cosmopolitan.

Diagnostic method(s): finding adult stage on the host body.

 Author: Piotr Nowosad date: 2020-05-22  print    back  
 
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