STRONA G£”WNA » Subject 3 (Labours, 1st year DDS)

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Subject 3 (Labours, 1st year DDS)


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Giardia intestinalis

Kind of parasite: homoxenous and polyxenous.

Host(s): humans and animals.

Infective stage: cyst.

Transmission on fecal-oral route:
direct route: person-to-person or animal-to-person;
indirect route: ingestion of cysts with contaminated food, water or hands.

Site of infection: lumen of the small intestine.

Diagnostic method(s):
• microscopic identification of cysts in stool or trophozoites in duodenal contents (fresh or stained preparations);
• immunoassays methods to detect Giardia coproantigen (EIA) or cysts (IFA).

Geographical distribution: cosmopolitan.

Remarks:
• giardiosis is one of the most common intestinal parasitosis of human,
• waterborne outbreaks have been recorded.

Cryptosporidium parvum/C. hominis

Kind of parasite: homoxenous and polyxenous.

Host(s): C. parvum - humans and animals; C. hominis - humans.

Infective stage: oocyst.

Transmission on fecal-oral route:
direct route: person-to-person or animal-to-person;
indirect route: ingestion of oocysts with contaminated food and water (waterborne and foodborne outbreaks have been recorded).

Site of infection: the epithelial cells of the small intestine, rarely respiratory tract.

Diagnostic method(s):
• microscopic identification of oocysts in stool (acid-fast stained preparations);
• immunoassays methods to detect Cryptosporidium coproantigen (EIA) or oocysts(IFA).

Geographical distribution: cosmopolitan.

Remarks: cryptosporidiosis is the most common infection in young children and immunocompromised patients (particularly in patients with AIDS). It is normally self-limiting in immunocompetent persons, but in the immunocompromised host the disease can be severe.

Cyclospora cayetanensis

Kind of parasite: homoxenous and monoxenous.

Host(s): humans.

Infective stage: oocyst.

Transmission on fecal-oral route:
indirect route: by ingestion of oocysts with contaminated food, water or hands (foodborne outbreaks have been recorded).

Site of infection: the epithelial cells of the small intestine.

Diagnostic method(s):
• microscopic identification of oocysts in stool (acid-fast stained preparations);
• microscopic identification of oocysts wall autofluorescence.

Geographical distribution: cosmopolitan; it is highly prevalent in South Asia and South America.

Remarks: since unsporulated oocysts are excreted with stools, they are not infective and direct fecal-oral transmission (person-to-person) is impossible.

 Author: Piotr Nowosad date: 2020-04-09  print    back  
 
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