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Subject 2 (Labours, 1st year DDS)


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Trichomonas vaginalis

Kind of parasite: homoxenous and monoxenous.

Host: humans.

Infective stage: trophozoite.

Transmission:
direct route: sexual intercourse;
indirect route: use of contaminated toilet articles, towels, underwear, medical instruments, bath in warm brine or peat baths.

Site of infection: vagina (sometimes in the urethra) of women and in the prostate and urethra of man.

Diagnostic method(s):
• detection of the trophozoites in smears from vaginal, urethral and prostatic secretions (fresh or stained preparations);
• the culture technique is recommended as the most effective method.

Geographical distribution: cosmopolitan.

Remarks:
• in the life cycle of Trichomonas sp. occurs only one stage (trophozoite);
• another species from Trichomonas genus: T. hominis which lives in the large intestine is cosmopolitan, non-pathogenic flagellates of man.

Trichomonas tenax
(non-pathogenic, commensal)

Kind of organism: homoxenous and monoxenous.

Host: humans.

Infective stage: trophozoite.

Transmission:
direct route: usually through kissing
indirect route: use of contaminated dishes and glasses

Site of infection: teeth, gums, tonsillar crypts.

Diagnostic method(s):
• the detection of the trophozoites in smears from teeth, gums, or tonsillar crypts (fresh or stained preparations);
• the culture technique.

Geographical distribution: cosmopolitan.

Entamoeba histolytica

Kind of parasite: homoxenous and monoxenous.

Host: humans.

Infective stage: cyst.

Transmission on fecal-oral route:
direct route: person-to-person;
indirect route: ingestion of cysts with contaminated food, water or hands.

Site of infection: the large intestine (intestinal amoebosis) and extracolonic sites, e.g. liver, lungs and brain (extra-intestinal amoebosis).

Diagnostic method(s):
• intestinal amoebosis - the detection of the trophozoites and/or cysts in stool smears (fresh or stained preparations); since the E. histolytica/E. dispar cysts are morphologically identical, immunologic (IFA, EIA) and molecular methods are used to distinguish the both species.
• extra-intestinal amoebosis – serologic tests.

Geographical distribution: cosmopolitan, although clinical amoebosis is most prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions.
Remarks: several protozoan species in the genus Entamoeba infect humans, but E. histolytica is the only species known to cause disease.

Entamoeba gingivalis
(non-pathogenic organism, commensal)

Kind of organism: homoxenous and polyxenous.

Host: human, other primates, dogs and cats.

Infective stage: trophozoites.

Transmission:
direct route:†
- person-to-person (usualy through kissing);
- animal-to-human (zoonotic infection);
indirect route: use of contaminated dishes and glasses.

Site of infection: teeth, gums, tonsillar crypts.

Diagnostic method(s):
• the detection of the trophozoites in smears from teeth, gums, or tonsillar crypts (fresh or stained preparations);
• the culture technique

Geographical distribution: cosmopolitan.

 Author: Piotr Nowosad date: 2020-04-06  print    back  
 
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